Radionex Inner Core Material

There are multiple sides to optimal radiation protection. First of all the protective material has to adequately protect against radiation.

The new inner core material of Radionex which is made in the US manages to sufficiently protect without the use of lead.

The success of the design of such a material can only be determined using the most strict standards. Radionex’ inner core material fulfills and is certified according to:

  • ASTM F 3094-14 Det. Protection X-Ray Shielding Scattered Fluoroscopy
  • ASTM F 2547-18 Det. Attenuation Prop. X-Ray Materials
  • European IEC 61331-1:2014 / DIN EN 61331-1:2016

Our new lead free radiation protective material achieves the following absorption values for the indicated X-ray tube voltages:

 

There are two important parts to the successful design of a lead-free material with satisfactory protection properties:

1.       The lead equivalent for lead-free protective materials is highest around an X-ray tube voltage of about 90 kV.

Older standards only required the determination of the lead equivalent at one single X-ray tube voltage. Hence, if one selects 90kV for the determination of the lead equivalent the standard would be officially fulfilled, but the wearer would unknowingly be protected far less than assumed when working with other X-ray tube voltages.

The new Radionex inner core material has not only been measured according to the newest norms, but has also been designed to fulfill the nominal lead equivalent within stated tolerances over the whole x-ray tube voltage range of 50 – 110 kV.  

2.       Low-Z-materials, which a lot of times are used to replace lead, emit a secondary radiation, so-called fluorescence radiation, when subject to typical medical X-ray tube voltages (80 kV – 100 kV). This fluorescence radiation is low-energy and only has a very small range in the air. Therefore, this fluorescence radiation can only be measured directly behind the radiation protection material.

When determining the lead equivalent of a material, older standards did not require the measuring chamber being placed directly behind the sample. Hence, the fluorescence radiation cannot be “seen” by the chamber and a false result will be given. The lead equivalent value would be higher than it actually is.

 

Moreover, the fluorescence radiation has a greater effect from a biological point of view than the higher-energy scattered radiation that the apron blocks.

The new Radionex inner core material has not only been measured according to the newest norms, but has also been designed to reduce fluorescent radiation as much as possible

 

 FYI – Where did the old standards come from if they do not give correct results?

The old standards give correct results if lead materials are used

  • If lead is used there is hardly any fluorescence radiation, so it doesn’t matter at which distance from the sample the measuring chamber is placed.
  • Lead is a high-Z-material and hence effectively shields almost irrespective of the X-ray tube voltage (in the clinically relevant range of 50 – 150 kV) making it sufficient to measure at only one point.

Both points mentioned above have been addressed and solved for the Radionex inner core material. The lead equivalent determined directly behind the Radionex inner core material fulfills the nominal value for all tube voltages within the range of 50 – 110 kV.

Figure A shows the built up of fluorescent radiation in a poorly designed leadfree material. The image illustrates the penetration depths of this secondary radiation emitted by the material itself.

Figure B illustrates the effect of Radionex radiation protection material. The build-up of fluorescent radiation is effectively prevented and the user as well as the patient are not exposed to higher levels of radiation.

Besides perfect protection properties radiation protection materials suitable for personal protective apparel must have a high degree of robustness to ensure long-term protection and safety. External influences and mechanical forces can drastically reduce or destroy the protective effect of unsuitable materials.

This is why the new Radionex radiation protection material has been designed with the following performance parameters in mind:

– High tear resistance                                  

– Resistance to UV and ozone                                 

– Good temperature resistance                

– Resistance to kinking                                

– Resistance to ageing                                                

– Long lifetime

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